FAQ-Frequently Asked Questions

1. Are your services appropriate for the type of difficulties I face? Which cases do you address?

Our services are addressed to people who experience cognitive or everyday life difficulties as a result of a specific disorder. Some of the indicative cases can be found here.

We also provide our services to people who would like to be tested or exercise their cognitive skills as a prevention measure against cognitive decline.

Finally, we are addressed to people who would like to assess and develop their or their employees skills in the workplace.

2. What symptoms should I pay attention to when I suspect that my relative may have dementia?

  • Difficulties in critical thinking (e.g., decision making, poor financial decisions, thinking problems).
  • Reduced interest for activities and hobbies.
  • Repetition of the same things over and over (questions, stories, statements).
  • Difficulty in using tools or devices (e.g., computer, microwave, tv remote control).
  • Forgetting the current month.
  • Difficulty in handling complex financial issues (e.g., paying the bills)
  • Difficulty in remembering dates.
  • Everyday difficulties with thinking or memory.
  • Changes in behavior or emotion (e.g., impulsivity)

Adapted from Galvin et al, (2005). The AD8, a brief informant interview to detect dementia, Neurology, 65, 559-564.

3. I frequently forget information or lose my things. Do I have dementia?

As memory loss is the predominant symptom for most types of dementia, people tend to worry when they notice that they forget more than usual. However, memory difficulties are not always associated with dementia. Other causes, such as vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency, mood disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, hypothyroidism and attention deficit disorder are also conditions that affect memory. Consult your doctor for any symptoms that concern you.

4. What is Neuropsychological Assessment? Why and when should I do it?

Neuropsychological Assessment is a brief screening or an extended assessment of one's abilities and difficulties and capturing one's cognitive potential. Neuropsychological Assessment can assist in the diagnosis of the underlying disease causing the cognitive difficulties and guide the therapist in applying the most appropriate and targeted therapeutic interventions.

The Brief Neuropsychological Assessment (BNA) lasts approximately 1 hour and involves the administration of a standardised tool for the preliminary assessment of one's cognitive function. The Extended Neuropsychological Assessment (ENA) is conducted during one or more sessions of at least 1.5 hours and involves the administration of various standardised tools and tests. The ENA is superior to the BNA and is preferred in the cases in which we want to obtain a comprehensive and complete picture of the individual's potential and functional status. Thus, depending on the question being investigated, the neuropsychologist administers tests of working and long-term memory, IQ (Intellectual Quota), attention, visuospatial ability, etc. ENA concludes with the production of the Neuropsychological Report, a formal document that serves as a reference point for the individual's status at the given time point, as a guide for the therapist to know what domains should be strengthened or exercised and a document to present in other services (e.g., school, army) which request a formal report on an individual's functionality.

5. What is Neuropsychological Rehabilitation and Cognitive Enhancement?

Neuropsychological Rehabilitation is a therapeutic approach targetting cognitive function and brain health. In fact, just as physiotherapy aims to strengthen the body, Neuropsychological Rehabilitation aims at strengthening the mind. It is a service that includes various therapeutic methods and approaches that are used individually depending on the person's abilities, strengths, weaknesses and needs.

Some of the different approaches we use include:

  • Cognitive Enhancement, which includes exercises through traditional (usually with paper and pencil) or digital media and the teaching of techniques to compensate for cognitive deficits.
  • Sensory Therapy, which includes sensory stimulation, including touch, sight, smell, and hearing, with pleasant or soothing stimuli (especially indicated for people with severe dementia)
  • Psychoeducation, which is the professional guidance in learning about a specific disorder, its causes, impact, prognosis, as well as, techniques for patients or their caregivers in order to cope with everyday difficulties.
  • Retraining, which is the re-learning or “awakening” of skills which may be impaired due to a disease, e.g., reading, writing, social skills, etc.
  • Home Adaptation Design and Implementation, depending on the customer's strengths, weaknesses and needs, e.g., placing reminders of important dates, signs to identify everyday objects, providing suggestions for assistive devices, and other services.

6. Does cognitive enhancement help? Does it enhance cognitive function?

According to recent research, cognitive enhancement not only can assist the cognitive function with results that can be maintained for up to two years (mainly in functions such as memory and language), but in the long-term it can improve occupational satisfaction, self-esteem and mental well-being. Additional research is being carried out to clarify the magnitude of those benefits. However, it is worth noting that, like any exercise program, the successfulness of cognitive enhancement requires intensive guidance by a healthcare professional for at least 6 months. Finally, an important prerequisite for the success of cognitive enhancement is the Extensive Neuropsychological Assessment, in order to identify the precise cognitive functions that need to be practiced.

 Butler, M., McCreedy, E., Nelson, V. A., Desai, P., Ratner, E., Fink, H. A., ... & Davila, H. (2018). Does cognitive training prevent cognitive decline?: a systematic review. Annals of internal medicine, 168(1), 63-68.

7. What kind of devices do you have that could help me and how?

Technology can greatly improve people's daily lives, especially if they have difficulties in a particular area. For example, in current market, there are available voice-assisted devices for people with visual difficulties and speech-assisted applications for people with hearing difficulties. Give us a call 96205350 (Sotiria Moza) to book an appointment for a free evaluation of the appropriate technology aids for your case.


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