What are the symptoms of dementia?

Dementia involves a wide range of symptoms, which vary depending on the cause and the areas of the brain affected. Therefore, not all patients may experience the same symptoms and intensity. Symptoms of dementia can be grouped into three different categories: cognitive, psychological (behavioral) and neurological.

Cognitive symptoms
  • Fading memory, constantly repeating tasks or words and forgetting where they put their things. 
  • Difficulty finding words during a conversation, and having restricted vocabulary.
  • Easy loss of orientation, even in familiar places, for example, their neighbourhood.
  • Difficulty completing daily tasks (ex: how to dress up, how to prepare a meal, etc.)
  • Difficulty solving relatively simple problems or with decision-making and taking initiatives. 

Psychological and Behavioral symptoms

  • Rapid mood swings and behavioral changes. 
  • Withdrawal from work and/or social activities.
  • Signs of increased anxiety, frustration, confusion, suspicion, sadness and/or depression.
  • Delusion (ex: the patient claims that others steal personal belongings and that the spouse or other caregiver is a stranger).
  • Wandering behavior / escaping tendency.

Neurological symptoms

  • Dystonia, stiffness 
  • Disturbance in walking, and movement plus imbalance
  • Tremble
  • Sleep problems (ex: restless leg syndrome)


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